Saturday, May 21, 2022

Gamma Dog - Performance

 So how does the Gamma Dog perform? 

The short answer is - fantastic! 

I am really happy with the performance. Charles and I have been testing our instruments inside and out and they work great - sensitivity is excellent so as the ease of use. The operation is a complete joy and a fun user experience just to go out in the field and hunt for radioactive minerals with the Gamma Dog. We seem to have nailed all of our design goals and there isn't anything I can think of to improve the instrument further.

Here is just a small fraction of the specimens I have collected with my Gamma Dog.

This little Euxenite crystal (on top of a US Dime for scale) I found under 2-3 inches of silt and sand in a wash near the pegmatite at White Signal, NM

This is the haul of Euxenite crystals over a couple of days Charles and I found in a single "honey" pot at White Signal, NM. 

I found this gigantic Euxenite crystal, one of the biggest I've seen - it wasn't difficult to find though, with an with activity of almost 8000 CPS, the Gamma Dog was howling. Charles found an unusually high-activity area and started digging a hole but then he attributed the activity to the "mass-effect". I decided to give the hole a second chance and it produced this fantastic crystal.

Another interesting Euxenite - the "corner" void was caused by a weathered quartz crystal which crumbled and disintegrated when I pulled it out. I guess the radiation onslaught over millions of years was too much for it.

A very interesting crystal habit of Euxenite (White Signal, NM) - I found the one on the left with my Gamma Dog and Charles found the one on the right. Both crystal are in the collection of Charles now. 
Picture by Charles David Young.

Allanite-(Ce) crystals I found over a couple of hourd with my GD at the Kingsman Feldspar Mine, Kingsman, AZ

Closeup of one of the Allanite-(Ce) specimens from Kingsman, AZ

Quartz with Copper ore and black Uraninite inclusions from the Green Monster Mine south of Las Vegas, NV.

Uraninite (the two on the left) crusted with secondary minerals (Gummite) and Zircon? (on the right) from the Biermann Quarry, Bethel, Fairfield County, Connecticut

A quick overview of the Gamma Dog.

Wednesday, April 13, 2022

Gamma Dog EXP - External Probe

The idea behind Gamma Dog EXP is to have a self-contained electronics module  which I can connect to various external probes. This allows a certain level of flexibility - detector using smaller crystal can be attached to a wand and used in the "Metal Detector" style setup, sweeping larger areas much faster or an alpha scintillator can be connected to check for contamination. I also use this setup very effectively during mineral shows (sans the wand) and I can quickly sweep across the tables with specimens.

The large internal detector unit is just too big and heavy to be mounted on a pole and the range of scanning around a person with it is limited to an arm's reach.

 This is the entire setup mounted on a "Metal Detector" style armrest and pole using a low-profile detector using 40x80 mm NaI(Tl) crystal

The self-contained electronics module came out pretty compact. It can be placed in a backpack or even hanging from a belt.

Over-the-shoulder strap is another, very convenient way to carry the unit.

`BNC connector for attaching the scintillating probe. Bias voltage is set internally (up to 1000V) and VD impedance of the PMT must be above 60MOhms.

Gamma Dog - skinned :-) the electronics only

The electronics modules for my Gamma Dogs - 3 are based on Version 3 Hardware and 1 unit (used as a Spare/Backup) - on the older Version 2 hardware.

My Gamma Dog pack - ready to hunt for radioactive rocks.

An inverse color scheme option is available in firmware 3.9
(Menu Selectable)

The mount for the detector was designed with TinkerCad and 3D printed with 100% in-fill for maximum mechanical strength.

Mount is comprised of a lower cup and a top cap. A threaded feed-thru is used to secure the cup to the bottom of the pole. I used a feed-thru to reduce weight and possibly add an elastic strap to pull-down the top cap.

The cap is designed with a slit for the BNC connector and cable. Cap slides over the pole and a pair of 0-rings - one on each side provide friction resistance. This facilitates easy installation or removal of the detector in just a few seconds. The friction from the o-rings is strong enough to lock the detector firmly in place.

If I need to remove the detector, all I need is to pull the top cap up and slide the bottom of the detector into the cup. To lock the detector in place I push the cap down and move the 0-ring right behind it.
The bottom cup provides additional mechanical protection to the detector housing.

This type of mount is fully adjustable for various detector lengths and diameters up to 2". Ill probably design another set for detectors with diameter between 2" and 2.5"

My 40x80mm NaI(Tl) compact detector in carbon-fiber housing, mounted at the end of the pole.

P.S. This is old but here is an article in Atlas Obscura on radioactive mineral collecting (shameless self-promotion:  I am quoted a couple of times and there are pictures of minerals currently in my own collection).

Wednesday, March 16, 2022

Low-profile Scintillating detector for Gamma Dog EXP

 For my Gamma Dog EXP (External Probe) I wanted to build small and lightweight detector to be mounted on a "Metal Detector style wand".

The weight is important as the detector is basically on the end of a long pole (which is great for covering larger area in a single sweep) and all of the implications from momentum and inertia of a large mass are present.  The pole becomes a lever in your hand the weight on the end is fighting changes in its state via momentum and inertia - according to Newton's laws it tries to stay in motion or tries to stay at rest and the results are amplified by the long arm of the lever to the operators hand. 

There is not much that can be done about the crystal - NaI(Tl) is a dense substance and at the end it comes to a compromise between weight and sensitivity. I decided to go with a 40 x 80 mm crystal. The length of the crystal makes it more sensitive for gammas coming radially to the canister - something which is an advantage due to the angle of the detector in relation to the ground surface (the metal detector wand on which it is mounted puts it at a fairly low angle)

To keep the detector assembly short and light I went with a very low-profile PMT - Photonis XP6242.
XP6242 has a hybrid multiplier comprising of a very large first dynode coupled to a foil multiplier.

The length of the entire PMT is about 10cm with the VD board on the back
It is a 10-stage PMT with Gain of 2.5x10^5 and supply voltage of 1000V

The photocathode's diameter is 48mm and the overall PMT diameter is 51mm which works out perfectly for a 40x80mm crystal. Photocathode is larger than the optical interface window of the crystal's housing which means no photons will be wasted. The size difference is small too - the canister's outside diameter is 46mm and the PMT outside diameter is 51mm which means there is no need for centering collar - just a few turns of electrical tape on the crystal's canister will equalize the size difference.

The Voltage Divider was made with 2R (K-Grid and Grid-D1) and R between the dynodes. I used 4.7M for R and 9.4M for the 2R

Since there is no standard 9.4M resistor value for the 2R resistors and the pcb pads are just for a single resistor, I had to use the "tent" mounting technique for these resistors. 
The total VD impedance is 65.8M - this is high enough to minimize voltage drop and works well with Gamma Dog's HV supply while improving SNR in case I use it for spectroscopy.

The VD board installed on the back of the PMT.
 A machined rear cap with a female BNC connector is installed over it. Before installing the cap, I soldered a strip of thin copper foil to the ground terminal and this foil is pinched between the PMT and cap, used to ground the Mu-metal magnetic shielding.

These "long" NaI(Tl) crystals are used mainly for oil logging - size is 40 x 80mm. 

Typical NOS Soviet-Era type crystal - nice and clear with no yellowing and blemishes. In Spectroscopy mode the resolution is better than 7%. Gamma Dog shows approximately half of the count rate of a 63 x 63mm crystal for natural background. 

The rest of the assembly is very straightforward - cleaning with acetone optical surfaces, applied optical interface silicon fluid between the crystal window and PMT, cap on the back with BNC connector, electrical tape, grounded mu-metal sheet (connected to ground with copper tape in order to double as an electrostatic shield for the PMT), a few turns of Mu-Metal around PMT overlapping the photocathode and VD board and then more electrical tape and foam.

For the detector housing I wanted something strong and light and the choices were titanium or carbon-fiber. I went with a carbon-fiber tube OD 64mm with 2mm wall. The detector assembly needed only one thin layer of closed-cell rubber foam to fit inside like in a glove.

Two 3D printed caps are used to close off the detector assembly.
The design of the caps is such that the carbon-fiber tube is inserted in a precisely sized groove in each cap. There is a beveled inner edge on the top cap sealing the enclosure against the inner detector cap.

The caps are glued with RTV sealant and provide dust and water resistance to the detector.